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A novel immunization approach for dengue infection based on conserved T cell epitopes formulated in calcium phosphate nanoparticles

Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2017 Nov 2;13(11):2612-2625. doi: 10.1080/21645515.2017.1369639. Epub 2017 Sep 21.

Huang X1Karabudak A1Comber JD1Philip M1Morcol T2Philip R1.

1 Immunotope, Inc. , Doylestown , PA , USA.
2 Captivate Pharmaceuticals , Doylestown , PA , USA.

Abstract

Dengue virus (DV) is the etiologic agent of dengue fever, the most significant mosquito-borne viral disease in humans. Most DV vaccine approaches are focused on generating antibody mediated responses; one such DV vaccine is approved for use in humans but its efficacy is limited. While it is clear that T cell responses play important role in DV infection and subsequent disease manifestations, fewer studies are aimed at developing vaccines that induce robust T cells responses. Potent T cell based vaccines require 2 critical components: the identification of specific T cell stimulating MHC associated peptides, and an optimized vaccine delivery vehicle capable of simultaneously delivering the antigens and any required adjuvants. We have previously identified and characterized DV specific HLA-A2 and -A24 binding DV serotypes conserved epitopes, and the feasibility of an epitope based vaccine for DV infection. In this study, we build on those previous studies and describe an investigational DV vaccine using T cell epitopes incorporated into a calcium phosphate nanoparticle (CaPNP) delivery system. This study presents a comprehensive analysis of functional immunogenicity of DV CaPNP/multipeptide formulations in vitro and in vivo and demonstrates the CaPNP/multipeptide vaccine is capable of inducing T cell responses against all 4 serotypes of DV. This synthetic vaccine is also cost effective, straightforward to manufacture, and stable at room temperature in a lyophilized form. This formulation may serve as an effective candidate DV vaccine that protects against all 4 serotypes as either a prophylactic or therapeutic vaccine.

Pubmed Link

MHC Class I Presented T Cell Epitopes as Potential Antigens for Therapeutic Vaccine against HBV Chronic Infection.

Hepat Res Treat. 2014;2014:860562. doi: 10.1155/2014/860562. Epub 2014 May 26.

Comber JD1, Karabudak A1, Shetty V2, Testa JS3, Huang X1, Philip R1.

1Immunotope, Inc., Doylestown, PA 18902, USA. 2Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX 77030, USA. 3Celldex Therapeutics, Hampton, NJ 08827, USA.

 

Abstract

Approximately 370 million people worldwide are chronically infected with hepatitis B virus (HBV). Despite the success of the prophylactic HBV vaccine, no therapeutic vaccine or other immunotherapy modality is available for treatment of chronically infected individuals. Clearance of HBV depends on robust, sustained CD8(+) T activity; however, the limited numbers of therapeutic vaccines tested have not induced such a response. Most of these vaccines have relied on peptide prediction algorithms to identify MHC-I epitopes or characterization of T cell responses during acute infection. Here, we took an immunoproteomic approach to characterize MHC-I restricted epitopes from cells chronically infected with HBV and therefore more likely to represent the true targets of CD8(+) T cells during chronic infection. In this study, we identified eight novel MHC-I restricted epitopes derived from a broad range of HBV proteins that were capable of activating CD8(+) T cells. Furthermore, five of the eight epitopes were able to bind HLA-A2 and A24 alleles and activated HBV specific T cell responses. These epitopes also have potential as new tools to characterize T cell immunity in chronic HBV infection and may serve as candidate antigens for a therapeutic vaccine against HBV infection.

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Autoantibody biomarkers identified by proteomics methods distinguish ovarian cancer from non-ovarian cancer with various CA-125 levels.

J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2013 Oct;139(10):1757-70. doi: 10.1007/s00432-013-1501-6. Epub 2013 Sep 3.

Karabudak AA1, Hafner J, Shetty V, Chen S, Secord AA, Morse MA, Philip R.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

CA-125 has been a valuable marker for detecting ovarian cancer, however, it is not sensitive enough to detect early-stage disease and not specific to ovarian cancer. The purpose of our study was to identify autoantibody markers that are specific to ovarian cancer regardless of CA-125 levels.

METHODS:

Top-down and iTRAQ quantitative proteomics methods were used to identify high-frequency autoantibodies in ovarian cancer. Protein microarrays comprising the recombinant autoantigens were screened using serum samples from various stages of ovarian cancer with diverse levels of CA-125 as well as benign and healthy controls. ROC curve and dot blot analyses were performed to validate the sensitivity and specificity of the autoantibody markers.

RESULTS:

The proteomics methodologies identified more than 60 potential high-frequency autoantibodies in ovarian cancer. Individual serum samples from ovarian cancer stages I-IV compared to control samples that were screened on a microarray containing native recombinant autoantigens revealed a panel of stage I high-frequency autoantibodies. Preliminary ROC curve and dot blot analyses performed with the ovarian cancer samples showed higher specificity and sensitivity as compared to CA-125. Three autoantibody markers exhibited higher specificity in various stages of ovarian cancer with low and normal CA-125 levels.

CONCLUSIONS:

Proteomics technologies are suitable for the identification of protein biomarkers and also the identification of autoantibody biomarkers when combined with protein microarray screening. Using native recombinant autoantigen arrays to screen autoantibody markers, it is possible to identify markers with higher sensitivity and specificity than CA-125 that are relevant to early detection of ovarian cancer.

PMID:
23999876
[PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3832954

Free PMC Article

MHC class I-presented T cell epitopes identified by immunoproteomics analysis are targets for a cross reactive influenza-specific T cell response.

PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e48484. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0048484. Epub 2012 Nov 7.

Testa JS1, Shetty V, Hafner J, Nickens Z, Kamal S, Sinnathamby G, Philip R.

1Immunotope, Inc., Doylestown, PA, USA.

Abstract

Influenza virus infection and the resulting complications are a significant global public health problem. Improving humoral immunity to influenza is the target of current conventional influenza vaccines, however, these are generally not cross-protective. On the contrary, cell-mediated immunity generated by primary influenza infection provides substantial protection against serologically distinct viruses due to recognition of cross-reactive T cell epitopes, often from internal viral proteins conserved between viral subtypes. Efforts are underway to develop a universal flu vaccine that would stimulate both the humoral and cellular immune responses leading to long-lived memory. Such a universal vaccine should target conserved influenza virus antibody and T cell epitopes that do not vary from strain to strain. In the last decade, immunoproteomics, or the direct identification of HLA class I presented epitopes, has emerged as an alternative to the motif prediction method for the identification of T cell epitopes. In this study, we used this method to uncover several cross-specific MHC class I specific T cell epitopes naturally presented by influenza A-infected cells. These conserved T cell epitopes, when combined with a cross-reactive antibody epitope from the ectodomain of influenza M2, generate cross-strain specific cell mediated and humoral immunity. Overall, we have demonstrated that conserved epitope-specific CTLs could recognize multiple influenza strain infected target cells and, when combined with a universal antibody epitope, could generate virus specific humoral and T cell responses, a step toward a universal vaccine concept. These epitopes also have potential as new tools to characterize T cell immunity in influenza infection, and may serve as part of a universal vaccine candidate complementary to current vaccines.

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Investigation of plasma biomarkers in HIV-1/HCV mono- and coinfected individuals by multiplex iTRAQ quantitative proteomics.

OMICS. 2011 Oct;15(10):705-17. doi: 10.1089/omi.2011.0004.

Shetty V1, Jain P, Nickens Z, Sinnathamby G, Mehta A, Philip R.

1Immunotope, Inc., Pennsylvania Biotechnology Center, Doylestown, Pennsylvania, USA.

Abstract

The analysis of plasma samples from HIV-1/HCV mono- and coinfected individuals by quantitative proteomics is an efficient strategy to investigate changes in protein abundances and to characterize the proteins that are the effectors of cellular functions involved in viral pathogenesis. In this study, the infected and healthy plasma samples (in triplicate) were treated with ProteoMiner beads to equalize protein concentrations and subjected to 4-plex iTRAQ labeling and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis. A total of 70 proteins were identified with high confidence in the triplicate analysis of plasma proteins and 65% of the proteins were found to be common among the three replicates. Apolipoproteins and complement proteins are the two major classes of proteins that exhibited differential regulation. The results of quantitative analysis revealed that APOA2, APOC2, APOE, C3, HRG proteins were upregulated in the plasma of all the three HIV-1 mono-, HCV mono-, and coinfected patient samples compared to healthy control samples. Ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) of the upregulated proteins revealed that they are implicated in the hepatic lipid metabolism, inflammation, and acute-phase response signaling pathways. Thus, we identified several differentially regulated proteins in HIV-1/HCV mono and coinfected plasma samples that may be potential biomarkers for liver disease.

PMID:
21978398
[PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3243494

Free PMC Article

Investigation of sialylation aberration in N-linked glycopeptides by lectin and tandem labeling (LTL) quantitative proteomics.

Anal Chem. 2010 Nov 15;82(22):9201-10. doi: 10.1021/ac101486d. Epub 2010 Oct 5.

Shetty V1, Nickens Z, Shah P, Sinnathamby G, Semmes OJ, Philip R.

1Immunotope, Inc., 3805 Old Easton Road, Doylestown, Pennsylvania 18902, USA.

Abstract

The accuracy in quantitative analysis of N-linked glycopeptides and glycosylation site mapping in cancer is critical to the fundamental question of whether the aberration is due to changes in the total concentration of glycoproteins or variations in the type of glycosylation of proteins. Toward this goal, we developed a lectin-directed tandem labeling (LTL) quantitative proteomics strategy in which we enriched sialylated glycopeptides by SNA, labeled them at the N-terminus by acetic anhydride ((1)H(6)/(2)D(6)) reagents, enzymatically deglycosylated the differentially labeled peptides in the presence of heavy water (H(2)(18)O), and performed LC/MS/MS analysis to identify glycopeptides. We successfully used fetuin as a model protein to test the feasibility of this LTL strategy not only to find true positive glycosylation sites but also to obtain accurate quantitative results on the glycosylation changes. Further, we implemented this method to investigate the sialylation changes in prostate cancer serum samples as compared to healthy controls. Herein, we report a total of 45 sialylated glycopeptides and an increase of sialylation in most of the glycoproteins identified in prostate cancer serum samples. Further quantitation of nonglycosylated peptides revealed that sialylation is increased in most of the glycoproteins, whereas the protein concentrations remain unchanged. Thus, LTL quantitative technique is potentially an useful method for obtaining simultaneous unambiguous identification and reliable quantification of N-linked glycopeptides.

Pubmed Link

Shared immunoproteome for ovarian cancer diagnostics and immunotherapy: potential theranostic approach to cancer.

J Proteome Res. 2007 Jul;6(7):2509-17. Epub 2007 Jun 5.

Philip R1, Murthy S, Krakover J, Sinnathamby G, Zerfass J, Keller L, Philip M.

1Immunotope Inc., The Pennsylvania Biotechnology Center, 3805 Old Easton Road, Doylestown, Pennsylvania 18902, USA.

Abstract

Elimination of cancer through early detection and treatment is the ultimate goal of cancer research and is especially critical for ovarian and other forms of cancer typically diagnosed at very late stages that have very poor response rates. Proteomics has opened new avenues for the discovery of diagnostic and therapeutic targets. Immunoproteomics, which defines the subset of proteins involved in the immune response, holds considerable promise for providing a better understanding of the early-stage immune response to cancer as well as important insights into antigens that may be suitable for immunotherapy. Early administration of immunotherapeutic vaccines can potentially have profound effects on prevention of metastasis and may potentially cure through efficient and complete tumor elimination. We developed a mass-spectrometry-based method to identify novel autoantibody-based serum biomarkers for the early diagnosis of ovarian cancer that uses native tumor-associated proteins immunoprecipitated by autoantibodies from sera obtained from cancer patients and from cancer-free controls to identify autoantibody signatures that occur at high frequency only in cancer patient sera. Interestingly, we identified a subset of more than 50 autoantigens that were also processed and presented by MHC class I molecules on the surfaces of ovarian cancer cells and thus were common to the two immunological processes of humoral and cell-mediated immunity. These shared autoantigens were highly representative of families of proteins with roles in key processes in carcinogenesis and metastasis, such as cell cycle regulation, cell proliferation, apoptosis, tumor suppression, and cell adhesion. Autoantibodies appearing at the early stages of cancer suggest that this detectable immune response to the developing tumor can be exploited as early-stage biomarkers for the development of ovarian cancer diagnostics. Correspondingly, because the T-cell immune response depends on MHC class I processing and presentation of peptides, proteins that go through this pathway are potential candidates for the development of immunotherapeutics designed to activate a T-cell immune response to cancer. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive study that identifies and categorizes proteins that are involved in both humoral and cell-mediated immunity against ovarian cancer, and it may have broad implications for the discovery and selection of theranostic molecular targets for cancer therapeutics and diagnostics in general.

Pubmed Link

Calcium phosphate nanoparticles induce mucosal immunity and protection against herpes simplex virus type 2.

Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2002 Sep;9(5):1021-4.

He Q1, Mitchell A, Morcol T, Bell SJ.

1BioSante Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Smyrna, Georgia 30082, USA. qinghe@bellsouth.net

Abstract

Previously we reported that calcium phosphate nanoparticles (CAP) represented a superior alternative to alum adjuvants in mice immunized with viral protein. Additionally, we showed that CAP was safe and elicited no detectable immunoglobulin E (IgE) response. In this study, we demonstrated that following mucosal delivery of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) antigen with CAP, CAP adjuvant enhanced protective systemic and mucosal immunity versus live virus. Mice were immunized intravaginally and intranasally with HSV-2 protein plus CAP adjuvant (HSV-2+CAP), CAP alone, phosphate-buffered saline, or HSV-2 alone. HSV-2+CAP induced HSV-specific mucosal IgA and IgG and concurrently enhanced systemic IgG responses. Our results demonstrate the potency of CAP as a mucosal adjuvant. Furthermore, we show that systemic immunity could be induced via the mucosal route following inoculation with CAP-based vaccine. Moreover, neutralizing antibodies were found in the sera of mice immunized intranasally or intravaginally with HSV-2+CAP. Also, the results of our in vivo experiments indicated that mice vaccinated with HSV-2+CAP were protected against live HSV-2 infection. In conclusion, these preclinical data support the hypothesis that CAP may be an effective mucosal adjuvant that protects against viral infection.

PMID:
12204953
[PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC120054

Free PMC Article