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Autoantibody biomarkers identified by proteomics methods distinguish ovarian cancer from non-ovarian cancer with various CA-125 levels.

J Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 2013 Oct;139(10):1757-70. doi: 10.1007/s00432-013-1501-6. Epub 2013 Sep 3.

Karabudak AA1, Hafner J, Shetty V, Chen S, Secord AA, Morse MA, Philip R.

Abstract

PURPOSE:

CA-125 has been a valuable marker for detecting ovarian cancer, however, it is not sensitive enough to detect early-stage disease and not specific to ovarian cancer. The purpose of our study was to identify autoantibody markers that are specific to ovarian cancer regardless of CA-125 levels.

METHODS:

Top-down and iTRAQ quantitative proteomics methods were used to identify high-frequency autoantibodies in ovarian cancer. Protein microarrays comprising the recombinant autoantigens were screened using serum samples from various stages of ovarian cancer with diverse levels of CA-125 as well as benign and healthy controls. ROC curve and dot blot analyses were performed to validate the sensitivity and specificity of the autoantibody markers.

RESULTS:

The proteomics methodologies identified more than 60 potential high-frequency autoantibodies in ovarian cancer. Individual serum samples from ovarian cancer stages I-IV compared to control samples that were screened on a microarray containing native recombinant autoantigens revealed a panel of stage I high-frequency autoantibodies. Preliminary ROC curve and dot blot analyses performed with the ovarian cancer samples showed higher specificity and sensitivity as compared to CA-125. Three autoantibody markers exhibited higher specificity in various stages of ovarian cancer with low and normal CA-125 levels.

CONCLUSIONS:

Proteomics technologies are suitable for the identification of protein biomarkers and also the identification of autoantibody biomarkers when combined with protein microarray screening. Using native recombinant autoantigen arrays to screen autoantibody markers, it is possible to identify markers with higher sensitivity and specificity than CA-125 that are relevant to early detection of ovarian cancer.

PMID:
23999876
[PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]
PMCID:
PMC3832954

Free PMC Article

Shared immunoproteome for ovarian cancer diagnostics and immunotherapy: potential theranostic approach to cancer.

J Proteome Res. 2007 Jul;6(7):2509-17. Epub 2007 Jun 5.

Philip R1, Murthy S, Krakover J, Sinnathamby G, Zerfass J, Keller L, Philip M.

1Immunotope Inc., The Pennsylvania Biotechnology Center, 3805 Old Easton Road, Doylestown, Pennsylvania 18902, USA.

Abstract

Elimination of cancer through early detection and treatment is the ultimate goal of cancer research and is especially critical for ovarian and other forms of cancer typically diagnosed at very late stages that have very poor response rates. Proteomics has opened new avenues for the discovery of diagnostic and therapeutic targets. Immunoproteomics, which defines the subset of proteins involved in the immune response, holds considerable promise for providing a better understanding of the early-stage immune response to cancer as well as important insights into antigens that may be suitable for immunotherapy. Early administration of immunotherapeutic vaccines can potentially have profound effects on prevention of metastasis and may potentially cure through efficient and complete tumor elimination. We developed a mass-spectrometry-based method to identify novel autoantibody-based serum biomarkers for the early diagnosis of ovarian cancer that uses native tumor-associated proteins immunoprecipitated by autoantibodies from sera obtained from cancer patients and from cancer-free controls to identify autoantibody signatures that occur at high frequency only in cancer patient sera. Interestingly, we identified a subset of more than 50 autoantigens that were also processed and presented by MHC class I molecules on the surfaces of ovarian cancer cells and thus were common to the two immunological processes of humoral and cell-mediated immunity. These shared autoantigens were highly representative of families of proteins with roles in key processes in carcinogenesis and metastasis, such as cell cycle regulation, cell proliferation, apoptosis, tumor suppression, and cell adhesion. Autoantibodies appearing at the early stages of cancer suggest that this detectable immune response to the developing tumor can be exploited as early-stage biomarkers for the development of ovarian cancer diagnostics. Correspondingly, because the T-cell immune response depends on MHC class I processing and presentation of peptides, proteins that go through this pathway are potential candidates for the development of immunotherapeutics designed to activate a T-cell immune response to cancer. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comprehensive study that identifies and categorizes proteins that are involved in both humoral and cell-mediated immunity against ovarian cancer, and it may have broad implications for the discovery and selection of theranostic molecular targets for cancer therapeutics and diagnostics in general.

Pubmed Link