Calcium phosphate nanoparticles induce mucosal immunity and protection against herpes simplex virus type 2.

Clin Diagn Lab Immunol. 2002 Sep;9(5):1021-4.

He Q1, Mitchell A, Morcol T, Bell SJ.

1BioSante Pharmaceuticals, Inc., Smyrna, Georgia 30082, USA.


Previously we reported that calcium phosphate nanoparticles (CAP) represented a superior alternative to alum adjuvants in mice immunized with viral protein. Additionally, we showed that CAP was safe and elicited no detectable immunoglobulin E (IgE) response. In this study, we demonstrated that following mucosal delivery of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) antigen with CAP, CAP adjuvant enhanced protective systemic and mucosal immunity versus live virus. Mice were immunized intravaginally and intranasally with HSV-2 protein plus CAP adjuvant (HSV-2+CAP), CAP alone, phosphate-buffered saline, or HSV-2 alone. HSV-2+CAP induced HSV-specific mucosal IgA and IgG and concurrently enhanced systemic IgG responses. Our results demonstrate the potency of CAP as a mucosal adjuvant. Furthermore, we show that systemic immunity could be induced via the mucosal route following inoculation with CAP-based vaccine. Moreover, neutralizing antibodies were found in the sera of mice immunized intranasally or intravaginally with HSV-2+CAP. Also, the results of our in vivo experiments indicated that mice vaccinated with HSV-2+CAP were protected against live HSV-2 infection. In conclusion, these preclinical data support the hypothesis that CAP may be an effective mucosal adjuvant that protects against viral infection.

[PubMed – indexed for MEDLINE]

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